Why are Hindu texts being blamed for India’s sanitation problems?


The New York Times has just published an article which reports that malnutrition in India is not so much caused by the lack of nutrition as due to the lack of sanitation. This is indeed a damning discovery.


The article, which otherwise has some important facts, unfortunately makes a reference to Hindu texts and indicts them for the problem of open defecation in India today. The impression conveyed by the article is that the ancient texts told Hindus to go and shit everywhere. Nothing can be farther from the truth.

India today is struggling with the practice of open defecation and malnutrition but the reason for that does not lie in Hindu texts.

In fact the solution for today’s crisis lies in those very texts.

What the ancient Hindu texts such as the Vedas, Manusmriti, Kamasutra (yes Kamasutra is not only about sex) and many others highlight is that distance should be maintained between faeces and human habitation. Distance. In other words, no mixing, no contact between human wastes and the places where people live, eat and sleep. Also, it is specifically mentioned that faeces and urine should not be allowed to come in contact with water bodies. Even for agriculture, the use of raw human waste was prohibited. Mind you, this was centuries before the germ theory of disease was formulated in Europe. Which means, long before Europeans made the connection between disease-causing pathogens and faeces, the Hindu texts precluded this from happening.

In those days, when populations were low, people would walk long distances away from homes, away from rivers or wells, defaecate into pits, cover them with soil and leave them to get absorbed into soil. They would wash their hands thoroughly with natural cleaning agents which varied from place to place.

In the pre-British years, India was well-endowed with lakes, tanks and water harvesting structures. Kings financed the maintenance of the water structures while citizens contributed labour. Since people took a personal interest in their water resources, there was a collective sense of responsibility to safeguard them. States such as Mysore had as many as 40,000 lakes.

The problem arose when populations grew. There were fewer “far-off” places to defaecate because where the boundaries of one village ended, another started. One might be defaecating far away from one’s home but that place could be close to another’s home! Knowledge about covering up the faeces properly was not transmitted correctly. Poverty made it harder for families to pay much attention to hygiene. Things were not helped when the British took over and destroyed old patterns of living.

Under British governance, the maintenance of reservoirs and rainwater harvesting structures was perceived as an unnecessary expense and discontinued. Gradually, the water tanks fell into disuse. As people migrated to cities in search of education and jobs, indigenous knowledge of water management and sanitation disappeared completely.

Meanwhile the flush toilet arrived in cities from Europe and this became the cause of even more pollution for the simple reason that its design principle was based on pollution. It envisaged the mixing of clean water with faeces and disposing it somewhere (usually in rivers or lakes).

The hallowed Hindu principle of not mixing waste with clean water was discarded and this let loose a plethora of diseases. Had those principles been researched and developed scientifically into a code of best practices, today India could have been full of eco-friendly toilets that produced excellent fertiliser (perhaps bio-energy too) and our rivers, lakes, wells would have all been the cleanest in the world. There would have been no need to import fertilisers at nearly $700 per tonne.

Instead, flush toilets became popular everywhere and the water (sewage) carrying away the wastes from homes was dumped into rivers and lakes. Once sewage is generated, we need sewage treatment plants with a whole range of processes to separate the water from the wastes. Just think about it: mixing clean water with faeces just to transport them and then using a whole lot of energy, chemicals and money to separate solids from water! That sounds intelligent? It takes just one particle of waste to contaminate hundreds of litres of water. The Hindus who wrote the ancient texts were not idiots. Far from it. They need to be commended not mocked. Any sanitation professional will admit that flush toilets are big mistakes but there’s no choice, it is hard to change hardware that has been installed everywhere. So the thinking today is – the system might be wrong but let us make it work as efficiently as we can.

The British did not invest in sewage treatment for the country. When India became independent, its politicians turned out to be of the useless variety who had no idea about how big the sanitation problem would become one day. They thought the rivers and lakes with their water in plenty would dilute the concentrations of bacteria coming from sewage. Until the 1970s, the dilution was actually quite good and rivers like the Ganga actually remained clean for decades even with all the dirt flowing into it.

But this could not last forever as populations grew uncontrollably. The old habit of defaecating in the fields continued in villages with people having no idea that the principle of not letting waste contaminate water sources was being violated to the very core.

What the country needs to do today is to reclaim the knowledge in the ancient Hindu texts which taught humans to take care of their environment, to keep dirt and waste away from water bodies. We need to make up for lost time and build toilets that do not send human wastes to water.

3 thoughts on “Why are Hindu texts being blamed for India’s sanitation problems?

  1. Dear Sahanaji, Thank you for this provocative post. A similar piece appears on our own blog, at http://hafsite.org/blog/new-york-times-fecal-load-of-hinduphobia/ .
    I think you make many interesting points, including that open defecation may have been done in controlled environments including specially dug pits, to be covered over when full, and also that the focus was to avoid mixing clean water with dirty, both of which are sadly lacking in India today for multiple interlocking reasons.

    I would have to understand some of the solutions you propose a lot better to comment intelligently on them as compared to piped sanitation & treatment facilities, which I think are extremely vital in a modern era with a much higher population density than ancient India. But in a currently warming world with decreasing reserves of fresh water (as my own state of California is currently experiencing), thinking anew on these old problems is warranted on multiple levels.

  2. Sahana Ji,
    Thank you for bringing this to our attention and bringing the right perspective to this important problem.

  3. Dear Suhanaji,

    Well said, each point is raised very judiciously and needs thorough consideration. I am researching on the topic so i am overhelmed with joy to see your article, it was always fundamental question puzzling me. Nice article and promise to work on this intiative…..

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